探索发现 · 学术讲座

如何通过催化反应来制备可持续性燃料
How Can Catalysis Contribute to the Production of Fuels from Renewable Resources? — 大师讲坛第134期

Alexis T. Bell教授,现任加州大学伯克利分校化工系Dow Professor of Sustainable Chemistry,劳伦斯伯克利国家实验室Faculty Senior Scientist,美国科学院院士、美国工程院院士、美国艺术与科学院院士、美国科学进步会会士、日本促进科学学会会士、俄罗斯科学院西伯利亚分院荣誉教授、中国科学院爱因斯坦讲席教授;Catalysis Reviews - Science and Engineering主编、Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS)编辑、Journal of Physical Chemistry A/B/C 编委会成员。历任加州大学伯克利分校化工系主任、化学学院院长等职务。

Alexis T. Bell教授是国际公认的在催化反应机制与动力学、原子和分子水平的催化活性中心表征研究的领导者,在 2008年被美国化工学会提名为“百名现代化学工程师”(One Hundred Engineers of the Modern Era)之一。Bell课题组的主要研究方向为催化剂活性中心组份和结构的识别,并对如何限制整体催化剂活性和选择性的基本过程加以解释。这些研究涉及到许多实验和理论方法的应用,其中大部分是由Bell及其合作者提出的。在过去的几年里,他的主要研究重心为甲醇和乙醇氧化羰基化、二甲氧基甲烷羰基化、烷烃氧化脱氢、N2O分解和烯烃的环氧化反应等。他还在生物质转化燃料和电化学二氧化碳固定领域开拓了新的方向。


传统化石能源(煤,石油和天然气)的燃烧是是造成大气中CO2浓度持续上升,引发全球温室效应的重要原因。为了避免日益严重的气候变化对社会发展的影响,并维持当前经济和社会福祉的持续增长,我们必须加快从化石燃油向可再生燃油转型的步伐。目前来说,在中短程、低负荷的运输模式中,已经可以使用可充电电池和氢燃料电池来,但航空、海运和长途货运仍主要依赖于碳基燃料。

在本次讲座中,Bell教授将介绍和评述如何通过催化反应,利用生物质和大气中的CO2作为“碳源”来制备绿色燃料:1)将脂肪酸或者木质纤维素生物质的碳水化合物作为合成子,经由布朗斯特酸或路易斯酸碱对的催化转化,来生产各种柴油和航空燃料;2)经由Cu基电催化剂,将CO2分子选择性的转化为碳氢化合物和醇类分子。


The combustion of fuels derived from fossil energy reserves (coal, petroleum, and natural gas) is responsible for the continuing rise in the concentration of atmospheric CO2 and its consequent effects on global climate. To avoid increasingly serious effects of climate change and to enable societies to grow and maintain their economic and social wellbeing, it is essential that they switch from fossil to renewable energy sources for transportation fuels. While low and medium duty modes of transportation can be electrified using rechargeable batteries and hydrogen fuel cells, aviation, marine, and long-distance trucking are likely to require carbon-based fuels.

This talk will examine the role of catalysis in providing these types of fuels. As the carbon source, we will consider biomass and atmospheric CO2. We will begin by examining the production of synthons from carbohydrate portion of lignocellulosic biomass and from fatty acids and will show that it is possible to produce a variety of diesel and aviation fuels from these intermediates. The catalysts required for these reactions are Br?nsted acids or Lewis acid-base pairs. The second half of the talk will examine what is required to produce high faradaic yields of hydrocarbons and alcohols via the electrochemical reduction of CO2 over Cu. For each part of the talk, we will examine how fundamental knowledge of catalyst structure and composition provides guidance for the selection of active and selective catalysts.


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